The original court case was between a group of merchants fighting against Visa, MasterCard, and the issuing banks about unfair practices related to interchange fees.
"Interchange" is the fee collected by banks every time a merchant accepts payment from a customer using a credit card. I'm sure we don’t have to tell you how absurd the fees have become. But the lack of competition meant steadily rising costs and no alternatives for business owners.
Finally, merchants fought back and sued. Both parties originally agreed to settle for more than $7 billion dollars, but many larger retailers like Walmart and Google took separate legal action with their own divisions of attorneys.
However, since most small to medium-sized businesses don't have the resources to do that on their own, so the only thing they could do was wait. Finally, after lengthy discussion and separate agreements, the Judge has preliminarily approved the payment plan for the massive settlement.